The taste stimuli of the Spanish wine
The taste stimuli of the wine
The taste is perceived by specific organs in the tongue: the taste organs. They only detect 4 elemental tastes: acid, bitter, sweet and saline. The rest of it is only tactile, thermal and chemical perceptions, in which can be involved lips, palate and cheeks (but not in the detection of tastes).
The four tastes are not appreciated at the same time, because the corresponding organs are located in different areas of the tongue: sweet in its tip, acid and saline in the middle at both sides, and bitter at the root. Several seconds can pass between sweet and bitter taste.
The sweet taste is the most easy to detect. The other sensations in pure state are not agreeable, and only acceptable if equilibrated with the sweet taste.
The 4 elemental tastes are in wine caused by:
– Sweet: alcohol, glycerol and sugars (residuals or not).
– Acid: free organic acids (tartaric, malic, citric, lactic and succinic principally).
– Saline: saline organic acids.
– Bitter: polifenols (especially tannins).
The examination of tastes is done according to the following parameters:
1. “Frankness” no interference tastes-foreign smells
3. Harmony or equilibrium
4. Persistency or duration of the sensation can vary between 2 and 3 seconds in an ordinary wine and 20 . seconds in an excellent wine.
5.Final sensation: global quality.
The steps by which the examination of the tastes is done are:
Attack: This is what is perceived during the first 2-3 seconds. It is mostly dominated by the sweet taste.
Passing in the mouth: the other tastes are quickly involved and mask the sweet taste, emphasizing or harmonizing one over the others (sharp or equilibrated)
Finalizing in the mouth: bouquet taste that persists a short or longer while after swallowing or spitting out the wine.